05.12 Mai Aasjõe

 

05.12 pidas RSRis loengu Mai Aasjõe, kes oli 2015. aasta sügisel Mondo vabatahtlik haridusekspert Ghanas Kongo külas. Täna tegutseb Aasjõe MTÜ Mondo Maailmahariduse projektijuhina. Loengus tutvustas Aasjõe Põhja-Ghanas asuva Kongo küla haridus- ja eluolu.

MTÜ Mondo on Eesti suurim arengukoostöö, humanitaarabi ja maailmaharidusega tegelev organisatsioon. Ghanas on Mondo tegutsenud alates 2009. aastast. Mondo väljunditeks on Ghanas ja Aafrikas laiemalt lastele põhi- ja gümnaasiumihariduse kättesaadavuse suurendamine ning lesknaiste toetamine kitsedega ja sheavõi- ning korvipunumisühistute käivitamisega. 3-kuulise programmiga lähetatakse Eestist ekspertvabatahtlikke, kes oma pikaajalisi erialaseid kogemusi rakendavad sealse keskkonna edendamiseks. 

Mai Aasjõe, hariduselt prantsuse filoloog ning ametilt õpetaja ja haridusaktivist, siirdus 2015. aastal Kongo külla õpetama prantsuse keelt. Nimelt on endine Briti Kullarannik ehk Ghana ingliskeelne, kuid ümbritsetud idast, läänest ja põhjast prantsuskeelsete naabritega: Togo, Elevandiluurannik ja Burkina Faso. Põhja-Ghanas asuva Kongo küla igapäevaelu mõjutavad  ligi 800 km eemal asuva pealinna Accra asemel rohkem just nimetatud naaberriigid. Seetõttu on prantsuse keele oskus argises asjaajamises tarvilik. Aasjõe missiooniks saigi edendada Kongo küla pedagoogide prantsuse keele oskust tasemeni, mis võimaldaks neil omakorda õpetada naaberriikide kaupmeestega suhtlevaid kohalikke,

Lääne-Aafrika "imelaps" Ghana

Ghanat on peetud algaja Aafrika-huvilise üheks esimeseks sihtkohaks. Osalt võib see tingitud olla riigi küllaltki edukast majanduslikust arengust või suurte kriisideta poliitilisest areenist, aga ka sealsetest inimestest, kes on avatud ja  külalislahked. Ghana edulugu algas 1957. aastal, mil iseseisvuti Briti koloniaalvõimu alt. Esimesest presidendist Kwame Nkrumahast sai üks silmapaistvamaid liidreid ning pan-aafrika idee eestseisjaid kogu Sahara-aluses Aafrikas. Demokraatia traditsiooni tugevust ilmestavad tänases kontekstis kõrge osalus valimistel ning veriste konfliktideta võimuvahetused. Ghanalasi endid teeb uhkeks oma rahvus üle nende tolerantne meelestatus riiki sisserännanud põgenike suhtes. Lisaks demokraatiale põhineb  Ghana imelapse staatus osalt ka majandusel. Nimelt on Ghana kullasooned kõrge väärtusega nafta, kuld ja kakaouba. Kuid vaatamata saadavale rikkusele, mis tihtipeale jääb siiski vaid kitsa valitseva seltskonna kätte, toovad need majandusharud kaasa mitmeid sotsiaalseid probleeme. Näiteks on Põhja-Ghanas levinud illegaalsed kullakaevandused, kuhu raha lähevad teenima koolieas noormehed. Lisaks katkestatud haridusteele, on kullakaevandused tervistkahjustavad. Neis piirkondades on kõrge meeste suremus, mis on tingitud peamiselt tööõnnetustest või kulla töötlemisel elavhõbedaga kokku puutumisest..

Valga-suurune Kongo küla asub perifeerses Põhja-Ghanas, mis on lõunast mahajäänum ja vaesem. Lisaks sellele mõjutab Sahara kõrbe lähedus Kongo küla põllumajandust. Kõrbetuuled toovad sinna aastas kaheks kuuks liivatormid, mille omakorda asendavad suured vihmavalangud, mis võivad vaid paari tunniga lagundada savist elamud vundamendini. Erinevusi ja raskusi lõuna ja põhja vahel võibki loetlema  jääda ning osalt just ka seetõttu Mondo otsustas töötada Põhja-Ghanas.

Mondo tegevused Kongo külas

Mondo üheks peamiseks ülesandeks on Kongo külas laste põhi- ja gümnaasiumihariduse toetamine ning koolide keskkonna ja haridustaseme tõstmine. Kuigi alg- ja põhiharidus on Ghanas tasuta, on raha siiski paljudele peredele takistuseks laste harimisel. Koolidel on karmid reeglid koolivormi ja õppevahendite suhtes ning kui neid norme ei täideta, siis koolis õpilasel käia ei võimaldata. Korralike kingade, kahe koolivormi (gümnaasiumis kolme), koolikoti ja muude vahendite soetamine on paljudele peredele üle jõu käiv. Seetõttu eraannetustel põhinev Mondo programm toetab 50 euroga aastas kohalikke kooliõpilasi, et nad saaksid muretult vaid õppimisele keskenduda.  Erinev on olukord ka gümnaasiumites, kus aastane õppemaks on 200 eurot. Gümnaasiumid on tihti internaatõppega ning kaasnevad kulud on veelgi suuremad kui eelnevates õppeastmetes. Ghana keskkoolides on tasakaal poiste ja tüdrukute vahel kaldus poiste poole. Kui internaadis on 12 majapidamist kokku, siis vaid kolmes elavad tüdrukud. Peamiselt on see tingitud noormeeste ja tütarlaste erinevatest rollidest ühiskonnas. Näiteks on erinevalt poistest tüdrukud lisaks õppetööle kohustatud ka majapidamisi ülal hoidma. Seetõttu võtab tüdrukutel keskkooli lõpetamine kaks kuni kolm aastat rohkem aega.

 Õpetaja staatus on ühiskonnas kõrge, kuid erinevalt Eestist, on õpetajad valdavalt mehed. Õpetajate elatustase ja palk on proportsionaalselt võrdeline Eesti õpetajatega (Ghanas on õpetaja palk umbes 250 eurot). Kui õpetaja jätkab magistrantuuris, jookseb ta palk edasi ka õpingute ajal. Seetõttu ei ole imekspandav, et õpetaja amet on paljudele lastele unistuseks Ghanas.

Intrigeeriv teema on naiste roll Ghana ühiskonnas. Kuigi Kongo küla on katoliiklik, siis vaatamata sellele kohtab ka seal polügaamse suhtekultuuri jäänukeid. Siiani on levinud kõnekeeles termin nagu teine naine. Naise hind on neli lehma ja kukk, mida ei pea kõike korraga ära maksma. Samas alles kuke üleandes viiakse läbi naise üleandmise riitus. Enne kuke üleandmist kuuluvad mehe ja naise ühised lapsed veel naise perele, hiljem mehe perele. Meeste varase suremuse tõttu on Ghana ühiskonnas palju lesknaisi. Kui mees ära sureb, lähevad ta naine, lapsed ja maa mehe meessugulasele. Tihti võetakse vastu maa, aga loobutakse naisest ja lastest, mistõttu on ühiskonnas suureks probleemiks majandusliku tagavarata lesknaised. Mondo on koondanud varata lesknaised ja loonud korvipunumis - ja sheavõiühistuid, mis annavad naistele majandusliku iseseisvuse ja kindlustunde.

Tähelepanekuid kultuurilistest iseärasustest

Aasjõe kogemust võib kokkuvõtlikult iseloomustada tema enda sõnadega "Mida rohkem ma käitun nagu nemad, seda rohkem ma mõistan neid ja nemad mind". Kolm kuud 2015. aasta sügisel ja kuu 2017. aasta kevadel möödusid kultuurikeskkonnaga samastudes, alates kohaliku toidu söömisest kuni seal levivate haiguste põdemiseni.

Erinevalt Aasia riikidest, kus puuviljavalik on aastaringselt mitmekesine, on Aafrikas aasta jaotatud puuviljade vahel ära. Tsüklist tsüklisse käib uue puuvilja valmimisperioodi ootamine. Loomset toitu süüakse vähe ja eriti ei osatagi taga igatseda. Kiduratest loomadest saab vaid nätsket ja maitsetud liha. Kui eelnevalt sai mainitud, et Mondo annetab Kongo küla lesknaistele kitsi, siis ei ole see sel eesmärgil, et neist saaks liha või piima, vaid et naistel materiaalset kindlustust pakkuda. Kits on rahaline tuluallikas, mille saab maha müüa siis, kui naisel või tema lastel tekib ootamatuid suuri väljaminekuid.

Raha on Aafrikas vähe, kuid seda ringleb palju. Kogukonna sees on üldlevinud mentaliteet, et rasketes oludes ei hoita raha endale eesootavateks rasketeks aegadeks, vaid jagatakse ja abistatakse koheselt üksteist. Läänes levinud uskumus, et Ghana turul tuleb hinnas kaubelda, on ekslik. Üldjuhul on kaupadel konkreetne hind, ja kui klient soovib kaubelda, siis seda vaid koguse üle. Raha ise ei ole aga takistuseks  ennast hästi tundmaks või kena välja nägemaks. Kui naisel on Ghanas keskmiselt 4 kleiti, siis meeste välimust võib tituleerida maailma üheks edevaimaks. Ghana mees kannab välja nii roosa kleidi kui ka võltsbriljantidega plätud ja päikseprillid.

Kui küsida Kongo külaelaniku käest, kas ta sooviks kunagi lahkuda Ghanast elama Euroopasse, siis vastu kõlab siiras ei. Kõik, mis teeb elu elamisväärseks ja rõõmsaks, on olemas juba nende praeguses elukeskkonnas. Neist peamine on aga tunne, et sa oled keegi ja suudad saavutada midagi palju rohkem kodus kui võõrsil.

 

Teemaga lähemalt tutvumiseks: 

  1. Doksari "Meie maailm, 9/12: Eesti küla Ghanas" (Eesti 2016) https://etv.err.ee/v/dokumentaalfilmid/meie_maailm/saated/a3392b90-dd5b-4b7a-b013-8a8cf4e6bcd9/doksari-meie-maailm-912-eesti-kula-ghanas-eesti-2016 
  1. Doksari "5800 kilomeetrit koolini" (Eesti 2017) https://etv.err.ee/v/dokumentaalfilmid/saated/17868322-c7d1-443d-9ab3-2284aa911fa2/5800-kilomeetrit-koolini 
  1. Mondo kodulehekülg  http://mondo.org.ee/riigid/ghana/ 
  1. Gleni kodulehekülg (noortele, kes on huvitatud vabatahtlikust teenistusest) http://www.terveilm.ee/leht/glen/

Konspekteeris Laura Toomlaid

On 28th November, the guest lecturer in RSR was Marina Kaljurand who gave lecture on “Cyber Security – challenges and potential responses”. She has served as the Ambassador of Estonia to USA, Mexico, Russia, Kazahstan and Israel. She has also been the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Estonia. Currently, she is a Chair of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace.

First time when Marina Kaljurand learned about cyber security was in 2007 when Estonia was under politically motivated cyberattacks. Back then she was an Estonian ambassador to Russia and she had to explain what is happening in Estonia – DDoS-attacks. It was important to talk about this because cyber does not have borders and in this field, cooperation is necessary. She said that states are not allowed to take any illegal actions and according to international law they must stop every illegal action that is transiting their country. It was known back then that cyberattacks came from Russian territory – Estonia had all the legal instruments in place, but the will was missing (there was a cooperation between allies but not with Russia).

In year of Snowden’s disclosure, Kaljurand was posted to the US. She said that the US changed a lot during these times and question of trust was the most important. Estonia was the first country to have a bilateral agreement in cyber security with the US and it was used as a hook to bring Obama to Tallinn (he came later, though). For Estonian diplomats, it is very important to represent our country because usually nobody cares about us and many even do not know (still think that we are part of the USSR). That was the reason we had to find our niche – which is cyber (e-lifestyle, cyber security) – and now it opens the doors and starts the conversations.

Currently there are 84 global bodies dealing with cyber security. Marina Kaljurand is the Chair of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace. At first, they were hesitating to include Russian and Chinese experts but as it is a global commission, they need people from different countries. They also have Jeff Moss and Joseph Nye, also human rights activists, and civil society experts. Commission is a multistakeholder. Governments need to cooperate in order to be successful because there are a lot of actors in cyber area. There is an ideological division in between of how the ICT is seen – one side (especially the West) sees it beneficial (lets do it!) and another (i.e. Russia and China) side sees the use of the ICT as interfering (colour revolutions, influencing internal politics). It is difficult to cooperate between two divisions.

Cyber is not only for IT geeks, there are so many fields – diplomacy, international affairs, law, etc. For Kaljurand, cyber security is about stability, it is an open, secure, stable, and accessible Internet. 65% of people are not online yet, they are to join us and we need to have stable and secure Internet. She said that we have to raise the awareness to countries who have no idea what is happening in cyber field. Thus, although she had no idea what all the 84 bodies are doing, she was happy that there are so many of them who are raising the awareness.

In 2013, it was decided by the UN GGE that international law applies to cyber space. The question is about how (jurisdiction and sovereignty). When is the sovereignty of a state violated (for example, in case of malware or when somebody really dies because of a cyber-attack?) UN is the only global organization, but it is from the 1940s. UN will never agree on everything, thus we need a division of like-minded states who have the same understanding and norms on how to behave in cyber space. For example, norm is that it is not okay to attack financial institutions during the peace time. Every country should be interested in having common norms, but it is not possible to agree because of the ideological divisions. If UN cannot work on that, then a group of likeminded countries can. Other bodies are the EU and NATO and both have its roles, for example, cyber is the 5th domain of operations (in addition to air, space, land, maritime). There is a NATO Centre of Excellence in Tallinn. The aim of cyber stability is to avoid misunderstandings (confidence building is getting people together, OECD is doing an excellent work there).

Kaljurand also spoke about Estonia’s e-voting. She used Hack the Pentagon – hackers were asked to hack a system to find vulnerabilities – example and she wants to do the same in Estonia with e-voting. She believes that we have a good system but there is so much criticism from abroad and we need a PR-event - Hack Estonian e-voting. We need international hackers for that. Government is not ready yet but she is still convincing it. We need to face challenges but not to step back. It may happen that people perceive it as negative PR (hackers are hacking Estonia) but we need to explain a lot what are we doing and why. We were lucky to have an ID-crisis in 2017 because we started to feel ourselves too comfortable.

What is the future of UN GGE? Has it failed because in the last meeting the participating countries did not reach a consensus?

Internet of Things, terrorism, international law, norms, confidence building measures, capacity building – GGE is looking these five fields. GGE was supposed to write a report (goal was not to go back from what was agreed two years earlier). Kaljurand does not think that coming years show a will of agreeing on something, she said that coming years will be for educating.

She also said that we need to start asking something for return. For example, if some country wants assistance in e-taxation, then it must make a political statement (international law applies to cyber space or a statement about human rights). If a country is not willing to make a statement, then it should ask for an assistance from some other country.

How to deal with Russia and China?

She has no answer to that. Balkanization of Internet (different countries have different Internets). She does not see that we could find common ground with China or Russia because of the big ideological differences. It may happen that states reach the point where they agree that cyberattacks are not okay. 2007 nobody died, it was just humiliating. All the cyberattacks have been kind of mild but if cyber 9/11 happens then the world would come together, and states would have more will and intentions to agree on some rules. It is a grey zone if you do not have rules. People get to together usually when something bad happens, it has not happened with cyber yet.

Tech-people can do attribution, but it has a political dimension as well, as it depends on the politicians (do they have the courage to say it out or not). She referred to former Minister of Defence Jaak Aaviksoo who said that we did reasonable attribution and our conclusion is that when somebody does everything like a dog then most probably it is a dog. Attribution is a political question and increasingly states should say that they were attacked by this or that country.

You can buy cyber weapons from the black market but it’s too primitive. It will change with Artificial Intelligence (AI) and internet of things, it will be cheaper for terrorists. So far it has not been used. KRATT – Estonian law on AI (obligations, responsibilities). Finland, company who has AI in its board, EE-FIN are competing on who will have the law first.

Why are there so many diplomatic efforts (84)?

She does not know what all of them are doing. On the one side, it is good that so many institutions are discussing cyber security. 2004 or 2007 nobody was discussing cyber but today everybody is discussing it. Her commission tries to look at what others are doing. It is good to have so many even if they duplicate. It is important to discuss and educate people.

Cyber security is connected to open internet. Are the EU and US values the same if something goes south?

US is very vocal about open internet, freedom of the Internet. They are strong supporters of human rights online and open internet. There are differences how countries see intelligence etc but basically, we are on the same side. We may disagree on small things, but we share the same principles and understanding.

Could you elaborate more on EU’s role (EU diplomacy toolbox) concerning cyber security?

Cyber diplomacy toolbox – if something happens how do we react. International law allows retaliation. We have regulations. What are the measures in case of cyberattack against a member state? All the rules apply to cyber security (political statements, sanctions etc). The same as the EU has done in the case of Crimea. In the EU it is easier than in NATO. In NATO, there is no mechanism of what to do in case of an attack.

However, there is a problem with the EU and overregulation - EU is very happy when it can regulate something. EU is not a single market, with cyber it is more complicated, there are more regulations. Some regulations are needed because you need to have some frames. You have to know what is allowed and what is not. It is difficult to find a balance.

How Is the cooperation with industries?

Estonia is cooperating pretty well with the industries. All industries (Microsoft, Facebook) complained that governments were not cooperating enough. Industries have ideas. States will not give away authority on retaliation, attribution etc. It is about attitudes (I know how to do my job!). Governments are starting to understand that they can’t do anything without industries. In the end, they have IT-nerds, governments cannot afford them. Hackers are going to school and teach cyber hygiene to students. Teachers were negative until they started to cooperate with the policemen. She said that hackers despite their image are not bad guys.

How much is Estonia an ideal case? How to implement it to other countries?

Estonia is doing well. Other countries need to find what is suitable to them. They don’t need to copy; every country (state) can find something what is interesting to them. Estonia needs to introduce what we are doing and urge others to find what is interesting to them. You can always do the same thing but with going around the corner.

Konspekteeris Kert Ajamaa